Tuesday, April 14, 2009

History Matters: West Acres Subdivision and Federal Stimulus Programs

Westacres, West Bloomfield’s innovative residential development on Commerce Road begun during the Depression, brings together two seemingly disparate subjects -- Federal stimulus programs and the slow foods movement that encourages people to grow and raise their own foods and consume seasonal foods from nearby. Both topics were as important in the 1930s as they are once again today.

The following excerpt from an unpublished chapter written by Pam Powell for Song of the Heron – Reflections on the History of West Bloomfield explains West Bloomfield’s critical role in a Federal stimulus program of the 1930s.

Next, I have cited Midwestern Landscape Architecture by William H. Tishler in explaining the important role of self-sufficiency in agriculture – as well as other areas – in the innovative landscape design of Westacres.

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal

As FDR’s plans for pulling America out of the Great Depression got underway in 1933, one program in particular probably had the most impact on West Bloomfield Township: the Federal Emergency Relief Acts of 1933 which proposed, in part, the construction of affordable housing for low-income families. Indeed, the New Deal’s revitalization programs led directly to the development of the township’s Westacres housing project.

Westacres – the forerunner of modern suburban developments

The Westacres subdivision of West Bloomfield Township is often recognized as the forerunner of modern suburbanization and residential development, not just for the township but countywide. A revolutionary concept in neighborhood design, the Westacres development was intended to provide affordable housing for factory-wage families and to boost a sagging economy as part of FDR’s New Deal.

Land in other areas of Oakland County had been subdivided prior to 1936, but mainly by land speculators who anticipated future building. Senator James Couzens and the New Dealers paved the way for modern residential development, but “Westacres was the first in which one company designed, platted, built and sold the properties.”

The self-sufficient, weekend farmer

Clearly, the Westacres subdivision brought about the township’s first intensive residential development project and also gave rise to a new phenomenon that would prove popular, successful, and long-lasting in the Oakland County community: the weekend farmer.

Oakland Housing, Inc., was formed in 1935 as the development’s real estate agent. The nonprofit benevolent corporation would carry out four related purposes: “To construct well-built, low-cost houses for industrial workmen within the annual income range of $1,200 to $1,800, who are subject to seasonal unemployment; provide a large enough lot for each house so that the owner may grow a sufficient quantity of vegetables to supply his own family; encourage with loans the residents of the project to engage in enterprises developed upon the corporation’s property which will enable them to make supplemental earnings during periods of unemployment or after hours; and, to assist the residents in a sound and satisfying development of their communal life.”

According to an original brochure provided to prospective buyers and obtained from original Westacres resident Hugh H. Benninger, the realty agents specifically sought out potential buyers who could and would cultivate the soil to produce adequate vegetables to supply the families year-round, and also provide supplemental income to the factory workers.

Still, the whole Westacres project may have never been launched if Michigan’s U.S. Senator James J. Couzens had not pledged his support—and his $550,000. Many of President Roosevelt’s New Deal projects did not sit well with Couzens; he viewed them more as mere social welfare programs rather than as economic development programs. However, the subsistence homestead projects of the New Deal housing program did intrigue Couzens, primarily because of their similarity to a housing plan he had previously considered, along with Henry Ford, for the Dearborn area.

Thrift gardens at each homesite

Emma Genevieve Gillette, a famous Midwestern landscape architect, was recruited by President Roosevelt and Senator Couzens to implement the plan for the 874- acre site. Gillette was intrigued with its platted , rectilinear street plan, featuring two rolls of widely spaced houses at the front of long, narrow lots. She saw the possibility for each homeowner to enjoy a large backyard and additional room for a thrift garden in the back. Each family had enough land to raise fruits, vegetables and poultry for its own consumption.

Also in her design was room for recreation areas, a school, community building and stores. Gillette and R.D Baker, project engineer, worked together to make the engineering and landscape development compatible, including the dredging of the nearby lake, where the rich muck was spread over the poor soil. She chose a variety of tree plantings, selected and placed plantings for the thrift gardens in the rear of each lot, and even established a cooperative on-site nursery. So many people wanted to see the progress of the project that a chain link fence had to be erected to prevent vandalism.

Westacres a success

The Westacres development was clearly a success. By 1937, the community had 84 school-age children attending the local Union Lake School, while the neighbors banded together to form a civic association that held as its chief concern the beautification of Westacres. In its early years, Westacres residents worked together to make the development a nearly self-sufficient community. Local organizations included the fire department, Boy Scouts, a cooperative store, the Westacres Credit Union, Blue Birds, Camp Fire Girls, Westacres Community Association, Child Study Clubs I and II, the Westacres branch of the public library, Sunday School classes, and a sewing club, most of which merged in 1943 to become Westacres Activities Association, with Harold Welch serving as president, with dues of fifty cents per month. The community also supported its own newspaper, The Westacres Weekly.

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

History Matters — Montgomery Ward Chairman removed from office in 1944 by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Much has been discussed about President Barack Obama’s removal of General Motors CEO Rick Wagner as if this has not been done before. My first thought upon hearing of Wagner’s removal was of a famous photo I found while helping author Brian Bohnett research the background for his book, Them Was the Days.

Removed from Office

In the 1944 photo, Montgomery Ward Chairman Sewell Avery was sitting in his wood executive’s chair on a street in downtown Chicago while being held by two members of what I believe to be the Illinois National Guard; complete with uniforms and helmets. Avery was removed because of his opposition to FDR’s New Deal program. The dilemma in 1944 was best expressed in a Time magazine article titled: Seizure. “But the over whelming issue at stake was whether or not the President had authority to take over an industry that seemed to the U.S. public patently civilian. How far does Federal power extend? Attorney General Biddle tried manfully to class Montgomery Ward as a war industry, pointing out that one of its subsidiaries manufactures airplane parts. But he hastily sought refuge under the Constitution's broad mandate to the President ‘to take care that the laws be faithfully executed.’" Seizure, Time magazine, Monday, May 8, 1944.

Michigan Military Academy

My interest in Avery is of a local nature. Avery was born in Saginaw, Michigan and attended the Michigan Military Academy (MMA) in Orchard Lake. While at the MMA Avery's bio reads: Sergeant, Company “A” 1890; Captain, Company “A” 1892; Senior Class Prophet 1892; Football (Right Half) 1892; Prize Contest in Declamation May 27, 1892 (2nd Prize: Chariot Race, from “Ben Hur”); MMA Minstrels Performance at Pontiac Opera House May 7, 1892; 2nd Sergeant, "Crack" Company, 1891 and a member of the 1892 graduating class.

Nine of the original MMA buildings are still in use by The Orchard Lake Schools. The MMA Academy Building houses the administrative offices and some classrooms of the Orchard Lake St. Mary’s Preparatory School.

FDR Confiscates Avery’s Yacht

The story does not begin in the streets of Chicago. Two years earlier, FDR, incensed by Avery’s refusal to comply with New Deal legislation, confiscated Avery’s yacht Lenore (view photos & source material). The vessel was of 94 tons displacement, length 92 feet, beam 16 feet and draft of 5 feet. The boat was built in 1931 for Sewell Avery, then Chairman of Montgomery Ward by the Defoe Boat Works of Bay City, Michigan. The boat was originally christened the Lenore after Lenore Avery, Sewell's second daughter who died at age 4. The yacht Lenore was originally used to cruise the waters of Lake Michigan near Avery's private estate at Iron Mountain. Serious disagreements between Montgomery Ward and the goverment over Roosevelt's NRA wage and price provisions led to the seizure of the boat by the goverment in 1942.

Renamed the Lenore II, she was used as a training ship for submarine crews in Portsmouth New Hampshire and later as an escort for the Presidential Yacht Williamsburg. The Lenore frequently carried the secret service agents who accompanied the President while he was aboard the 255 foot Williamsburg.

In 1953, President Eisenhower retired the splendid but costly Williamsburg from active service and authorized the refurnishing and overhauling of Lenora II at a cost of $200,000 and rechristened Barbara Ann in honor of his granddaughter. The Barbara Ann was used for occasional cruises and in the summers of 1957 and 1958 she sailed to Newport, Rhode Island where she conveyed the president to and from his golfing excursions.

With the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, the yacht was refitted and on March 7, 1961 was renamed the Honey Fitz, honoring JFK's maternal grandfather (Former Mayor of Boston, and member of the House of Representatives, John Francis Fitzgerald.

President Johnson did not rename the Honey Fitz and prefered it to the larger Sequoia which was still at the Washington Naval Yard. President Nixion renamed the Honey Fitz to Tricia after his daughter and had the vessel auctioned off in December 1971 after a brief tour of duty providing cruises for hospitalized Vietnam veterans. The boat was purchased by Joe Keating who named it the Presidents.

The yacht was completly restored and refitted as it was during Kennedys term and was used for charters based in New York city. She was sold to unknown buyers at the Kennedy Memorabilia Auctions in 1998, for $5,942,500. When the boat left overhaul the painted transom was once again embellished with Honey Fitz in gold leaf.

About the GWBHS

The Greater West Bloomfield Historical Society (GWBHS) is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization. It serves the Michigan communities of Keego Harbor, Orchard Lake, Sylvan Lake and West Bloomfield. The Society's goal is to provide a vital museum to familiarize residents with our area's history.
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